When the first phase of the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project drew to a close in April 2013, Moldova was one of the 36 participating countries that had benefited from the project to identify what kinds of technologies are best suited to their climate change needs. The GEF-funded program, which is implemented by UNEP with the collaboration of UNEP-DTU Partnership, helps countries assess their needs for new equipment, techniques, knowledge, and skills that will both mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Once identified, countries develop Technology Action Plans (TAPs) to use as a roadmap for getting these technologies up and running, incorporating a deep analysis of the barriers facing the uptake of specific technologies in each country, and how to overcome them. The custom-designed TAPs summarise the ‘enabling framework’ for diffusing the selected technologies, and propose a number of project concepts and financing activities.
Moldova is a good example of a successful TNA process, having developed two TAPs: one for mitigation and one for adaptation technologies. In each TAP, a thorough analysis was made of the barriers obstructing the introduction and use of the finalized technologies, as well as a detailed assessment of the actions necessary to overcome those barriers.
The adaptation TAP focuses on the sectors of agriculture and human health. Changes in the climate affect farming, and in Moldova, where agriculture is a major pillar of the economy, maintaining soil quality is a major concern. Therefore, the TAP recommends a number of country-specific measures such as herbicide-free soil tillage for winter wheat, applying manure with bedding every five years, and using vetch as a “green manure” by planting it as part of a five-year crop rotation cycle. The TAP also addresses health issues, proposing temporary clinics for emergency care during heat waves, and measures to guarantee rural populations a steady supply of clean water.
Moldova’s other TAP deals with mitigation issues in the country’s energy, transport and agriculture sectors. For generating electricity, the TAP recommends combined heat and power plants based on 500kW internal combustion engines supplied by gas from municipal solid waste. Hybrid electric cars were selected for the transport sector. For agriculture, the recommendations were similar to the adaptation TAP: promoting sustainable “no-till” farming methods, green manure and crop rotation, which also offer significant emissions reduction potential.
Both TAPs have been used as building blocks of the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan. Due to the strong involvement of national stakeholders in the TNA process, a key outcome has been the extent to which Moldavian agriculture experts now promote “no-till” and other climate-friendly farming methods when working with the Ministry of Agriculture and representatives of the food processing industry. Another outcome of the TNA process can be seen in the national Low Emission Capacity Building Project, which was launched in April 2014 which aims register two NAMAs. TNA training in activities like multi-criteria analysis, barrier analysis, developing action plans and project ideas all proved to be of significant value to the project and to building upon national expert capacities.
The second phase of the TNA, launched in November, 2014, will support assessments in 26 additional countries. For more information about the TNA project and the specific countries involved, please visit www.tech-action.org